How to install a Single Node Hadoop in Linux

In this post, we will create or install a single node Hadoop in a Linux machine. We will be using a Virtual Box CentOS machine and you can follow our guide here on how to install CentOS on Virtual Box. A requirement for Hadoop is that your machine should have Java installed. Read our article on how to install Java in RHEL or Linux machines if you haven’t done it yet.

We’ll divide this guide into three:

  1. Installing Hadoop
  2. Configuring Single Node Hadoop
  3. Testing Hadoop

Installing Hadoop

Firstly, we need to download Hadoop. Visit and visit the binary download link. This will give you the nearest download location of Hadoop for your country.

Next, select an installation directory. In this guide, we will install it in /usr/local/hadoop so we’ll be creating a directory inside the /usr/local folder.

mkdir -p /usr/local/hadoop

Since we are using the /usr/local/ directory, we need to change the permission and own the Hadoop folder so that we don’t need to run sudo everytime. Run chown command substituting javapointers with your own username in Linux.

sudo chown javapointers:root /usr/local/hadoop

Then, download the Hadoop tarball file using wget. Change the link to whatever link that was given to you.

cd /usr/local/hadoop
download Hadoop tarball
figure 1 – download Hadoop tarball

After downloading Hadoop, extract it using tar command.

tar -zxvf hadoop-2.10.0.tar.gz

This will extract and create the folder hadoop-2.10.0 inside your /usr/local/hadoop directory. After extraction, we will add the environment variables in our bashrc file. I’m using nano as my text editor but you can use vi or any text editor you want.

nano ~/.bashrc

Then add the HADOOP_HOME with value equals to our installation directory. We will also add it in our PATH variables so that we can run Hadoop commands in any folder.

export HADOOP_HOME=/usr/local/hadoop/hadoop-2.10.0
set environment variables of Hadoop
figure 2 – set environment variables of Hadoop

Then, load again the bashrc file and verify the installation by running hadoop version. Verify that you also have set correctly the Java home as well.

source ~/.bashrc

hadoop version
java -version
check Hadoop version
figure 3 – check Hadoop version

After verifying, we will now proceed to configuring our Single Node Hadoop environment.

Configuring Single Node Hadoop

We will be editing the following files to create a single node Hadoop in our Linux machine.

  1. core-site.xml
  2. hdfs-site.xml
  3. mapred-site.xml
  4. yarn-site.xml

These files can be found in $HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop. Let’s change directory first to that folder.

cd $HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop

Let’s start by editing the core-site.xml by using any text editor that you want.

nano core-site.xml

Then, add the following lines inside the <configuration> element and save.

add property in core-site.xml
figure 4 – add property in core-site.xml

Next, edit hdfs-site.xml and add the following property. Since we are creating just a single node Hadoop, the replication will be only set to 1.

add configuration in hdfs-site.xml
figure 5 – add configuration in hdfs-site.xml

Next, edit the mapred-site.xml file. Currently mapred-site.xml is not existing and we will be creating it from the template.

cp mapred-site.xml.template mapred-site.xml

Then edit mapred-site.xml and add the following property:

add configuration for mapred-site.xml
figure 6 – add configuration for mapred-site.xml

Lastly, edit the yarn-site.xml file and add the following property.

add configuration for yarn-site.xml
figure 7 – add configuration for yarn-site.xml

After configuring those files, we can now proceed with testing our Hadoop environment.

Testing Single Node Hadoop

Before we start Hadoop, we need to first format the location where Hadoop will store the files. Take note that you will only format a new installation of Hadoop. Formatting an existing/running Hadoop will delete the data stored.

Run the command below to start the format.

hdfs namenode -format
Hadoop format
figure 8 – Hadoop format

Then, we can now start Hadoop. There are two script files that we need to run. First, let’s run script file. This might ask for your password.

run script
figure 9 – run script

Next, run the script file.

run script
figure 10 – run script

Finally, verify our Hadoop by checking it on UI. Visit http://localhost:50070

Hadoop UI Main page
figure 11 – Hadoop UI Main page

Browse to Utilities > Browse the file system to check your files. Currently it is empty as we haven’t add any files yet to our Hadoop environment.

And that’s it! We have successfully installed and created a single node Hadoop in our Linux machine. Share this page to help others to get started in Hadoop by creating a single node Hadoop cluster.

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